Konsentrasi dan Distribusi Spasial Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH) di perairan Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Timur

Deny Yogaswara, Khozanah Khozanah, Dede Falahudin

Abstract


Perairan Sumba marupakan bagian dari Taman Nasional Perairan (TNP) Laut Sawu yang termasuk ke dalam Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Nasional (KKPN) didasarkan pada keunikan biota laut, di kawasan ini. Posisi KKPN ini tentu harus dijaga kelestariannya dari dampak pencemaran, khususnya pencemaran senyawa Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH) yang bersifat toksik dan persisten di alam. Maka untuk itu perlu dilakukan kajian tingkat pencemaran PAH di perairan Sumba dan distribusinya yang dapat dijadikan sebagai basis data lingkungan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui tingkat konsentrasi dan distribusi spasial dari pencemaran senyawa PAH di perairan Sumba, NTT. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada Agustus 2016 menggunakan Kapal Riset Baruna Jaya VIII. Sejumlah sampel sedimen diambil dengan menggunakan box core lalu dimasukkan ke dalam botol kaca dan disimpan pada suhu 4oC untuk selanjutnya dianalisis di laboratorium. Di laboratorium, sampel sedimen kemudian diekstraksi dengan menggunakan pelarut diklorometan dan n-heksan (emsure Merck) sebanyak tiga kali. Hasil ekstraksi kemudian dilanjutkan dengan proses clean up dengan copper aktif dan alumina. Setelah itu dilanjutkan dengan proses fraksinasi menggunakan silica gel 60 (70-230 mesh ASTM Merck). Hasil dari fraksinasi, sampel kemudian diinjeksikan ke alat Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) untuk mengukur konsentrasi senyawa PAH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 9 jenis senyawa PAH dalam sedimen yang teridentifikasi dari seluruh stasiun sampling di perairan Sumba yaitu Naphthalene (N), Fluorene (Fl), Anthracene (Ant), Fluoranthene (Flu), Pyrene (Py), Benzo (a) Anthracene (BaA), Chrysene (Chy), Benzo (k) Fluoranthene (BkF), dan Benzo (a) Pyrene (BaP). Distribusi dengan variasi jenis senyawa PAH tertinggi terdapat di stasiun 1 yaitu sebanyak 8 jenis senyawa PAH. Konsentrasi total PAH tertinggi terdeteksi di stasiun 1 yaitu sebesar 39, 7481 ng/g. Tingkat pencemaran senyawa PAH di perairan Sumba ini masih lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan tingkat pencemaran senyawa PAH di teluk Banten yaitu sebesar 0,192-2,358 ug/g

Keywords


Perairan Sumba, Konsentrasi, Polisiklik Aromatik Hidrokarbon (PAH)

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